Dyslexia is a learning disorder in which children have difficulty in learning to read and write despite having average or above average intelligence and an adequate opportunity to learn.
Dyslexia is caused by impairment in the brain's ability to translate images received from the eyes or ears into understandable language. It does not result from vision or hearing impairment. It is also not due to mental retardation.
Dyslexia can go undetected in the early years of schooling.
Letter and number reversals are the most common warning signs. There may be a general disorganization of written work.
The child may appear to be uncoordinated and have difficulty with organized sports or games. Difficulty with left and right is common. Children with dyslexia can have difficulty moving to the rhythm of the music.
The parents do see these signs in the children but are unable to interpret them as there is very little awareness about dyslexia. Children continue to lag behind academically and the parents are unable to deal with the problem.
This is also true with the teachers in schools. They are aware of children lagging behind academically in their class, but many of them are neither able to identify the problem nor are able to deal with these children mainly because of lack of awareness about dyslexia.
As a result of this, the child can become frustrated by the difficulty in learning to read leading to other problems that could disguise dyslexia.
The child may become withdrawn and show signs of depression and low self-esteem. The child may become de-motivated and develop a dislike for school.
Behavioral problems at home as well as at school are frequently seen.
By the time the parents/teachers seek help, the child is generally in Std. VIII/IX, when it is too late to help the child to come academically at par with other children in a short span of time (generally one academic year).
Early detection and early intervention therefore becomes the key to help such children overcome their learning difficulty and cope up academically.
Dysgraphia is the term associated with specific learning disabilities in writing. It is used to capture both the physical act of writing and the quality of written expression.
Common characteristics include: